Leisola is a well-known Finnish scientist and former Atheist who followed the evidence of science and converted to Christianity. He has been endlessly attacked, ridiculed, ignored, shunned, removed from positions, his peer-reviewed research and books delisted (burnt), and many of his speeches and workshops prevented from occurring. He is an expert in enzymes and proteins, a scientist with a long list of patents, inventions, peer confirmed studies, who is publishes (pace Pasteur) complete manifests and proofs for any to follow or find issues with. He believes in intelligent design and has never mentioned in his works that God is the designer. He simply looks at the evidence and states that the viewed complexity cannot arise by random selections. With some like-minded scientists, including Atheists and Evolutionists he set up a research web site to publish peer reviewed papers addressing evidence, not pre-supposing an evolutionary process (https://bio-complexity.org/ojs/index.php/main).
Leisola on enzymes. How did they first form?
“…some blind evolutionary process, materialistic evolution would still face an insurmountable challenge, one that can be summarized briefly: Enzymes are biochemical machines crucial to life. These proteins catalyze all the reactions in the cell. They recognize, cut, glue, transport, oxidize, move, and change parts of molecules. But how do you get enzymes, or any kind of protein, in the first place? Biologist Dan Tawfik of the Weizman Institute in Israel oversees a research group dedicated to finding pathways by which proteins may have evolved. But he is candid about the origin-of-life problem. “Evolution has this catch-22: Nothing evolves unless it already exists,” he said. So what does he make of the origin of the first enzymes and other proteins, essential ingredients for life? He described their origin as “something like close to miracle.”
Protein functionality cannot arise by chance:
“To be functional, proteins and nucleic acids must be formed from all one or the other. The molecules must have the correct chirality. To use the language of hands again, in a particular case you’ll need all left-handed molecules for things to fit together and for each to function as a building block. That’s a challenge for unguided origin-of-life scenarios. In chemical reactions both chiral forms are produced in equal amounts. That is, you get about equal portions of left-handed and right-handed molecules. There is no known way to produce by random chemistry only one of these forms.”
Mathematically there is no chance that a protein can self-form.
“The average protein is about 300 amino acids in length—more precisely, 267 for bacterial and 361 for eukaryotic proteins. These chains of amino acids can be ordered in 20300 different ways, a figure we can also represent as 10390. That’s a 1 followed by 390 zeroes.”
(there are) 1082 atoms in the visible universe, a universe containing more than 100 billion galaxies; and galaxies have, on average, about 100 billion stars. And yet the even number of atoms in the entire visible universe is utterly dwarfed by the possible letter combinations in an amino acid chain 300 units long.”
Leisola and our general lack of knowledge about DNA, RNA and the cell:
“When I translated Evolution: A Critical Textbook from German to Finnish in 2000, there was a lot of discussion as to how many genes humans have. The mainstream view was that there were probably about 100,000. Some years later, as part of the human genome project, it was discovered that we only have roughly 20,000 genes. Then it was discovered that our genes are much more complex than earlier thought. A gene can contain many messages which are read in both directions; genes can overlap; genes can be split in pieces that can be joined together in different ways; and the message can vary depending on where the reading of the gene starts. Theoretically a gene can help produce thousands of proteins and numerous regulatory elements. What the geneticist colleague thought was a field transitioning out of its discovery period had in reality merely taken its first steps into a wild west of scientific discovery, one we are still in today.”
The more we learn about scientific ‘laws’, or processes and the more we try to understand the bio-machinery in our bodies, the less we know:
“David Berlinski, who has taught at Stanford, Rutgers, the City University of New York, and the Université de Paris, put it this way in The Devil’s Delusion: Western science has proceeded by filling gaps, but in filling them, it has created gaps all over again. The process is inexhaustible. Einstein created the special theory of relativity to accommodate certain anomalies in the interpretation of Clerk Maxwell’s theory of the electromagnetic field. Special relativity led directly to general relativity. But general relativity is inconsistent with quantum mechanics, the largest visions of the physical world alien to one another. Understanding has improved, but within the physical sciences, anomalies have grown great, and what is more, anomalies have grown great because understanding has improved.”
No experiment has ever proven that RNA can self-form:
“However, no one has been able to show how RNA could be formed by random chemical reactions, or survive for long after it did form. One of RNA’s jobs is to take the information in DNA and translate it into protein molecules. Both RNA and DNA are made of three parts. Both contain phosphoric acid and nucleobase. DNA’s third part is a sugar called deoxyribose. For RNA, it’s a delicate sugar called ribose—indeed, alarmingly delicate given that RNA-World proponents are hoping that RNA might have been present at the origin of the first life. Ribose is one of the most reactive sugars.”
Origin of Life negates Darwinism:
“James Tour is a leading origin-of-life researcher with over 630 research publications and over 120 patents. He was inducted into the National Academy of Inventors in 2015, listed in “The World’s Most Influential Scientific Minds” by Thomson Reuters in 2014, and named “Scientist of the Year” by R&D Magazine. Here is how he recently described the state of the field: We have no idea how the molecules that compose living systems could have been devised such that they would work in concert to fulfill biology’s functions. We have no idea how the basic set of molecules, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids and proteins were made and how they could have coupled in proper sequences, and then transformed into the ordered assemblies until there was the construction of a complex biological system, and eventually to that first cell. Nobody has any idea on how this was done when using our commonly understood mechanisms of chemical science. Those that say that they understand are generally wholly uninformed regarding chemical synthesis. Those that say, “Oh this is well worked out,” they know nothing—nothing—about chemical synthesis—nothing.”
Mathematically evolution is an impossibility:
“Axe looked at proteins of modest length (150 residues) and published his results in the Journal of Molecular Biology. He found that the ratio of functional proteins to non-functional gibberish was 1 in 1074. He found that the odds of getting a protein with a particular function was 1 in 1077. That’s one protein capable of carrying out that function for every 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,00 0,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000 dead-on-arrival wannabe proteins.”
How would DNA error correction self-form?
“A Nobel Prize was given in 2015 for the discovery of this error-correcting system. It’s as if every cell has its own personal copy editor. This copy editor is not perfect, but it is extraordinarily effective, and essential. Without it our fertilized egg cells would die long before developing to an embryo. Thanks to this error-correction system, only about one mutation for every ten billion DNA letters is inherited by the next generation. If we could hand-copy the more than four million letters in the complete plays of William Shakespeare with the same speed and accuracy that bacteria read and copy their genomes, we could dash off some 200 copies of all his plays in twenty minutes with only a single typo in just one of the 200 copies.”
There is no common descent. Each species has distinct genomic systems and genes making them unique and making the ‘gene sharing’ theory irrelevant.
“Kozulić is a talented and versatile biochemist who has over fifty patents. He later worked at private biotech companies. Kozulić’s major arguments against evolutionary theory are related to the huge complexity of biological metabolic informational networks and their regulation. Kozulić analyzed the literature on sequenced genomes and concluded that each species has hundreds of what are termed ORFan genes or singleton genes. These are genes with no resemblance to those found in other taxa (categories of organisms such as species, genera, and families).”
This is an excellent book. Many of the leading lights of evolution and biology are presented. Even the most ardent neo-Darwinist true-believer knows that their philosophies are not scientifically valid. Leisola recounts the vehemence and violence of the evolution-paradigm as it fights back, debases those who question its premises, marginalises those whose research makes it clear that Darwinism is largely a word-salad exercise, demonises any who are not a part of the Church of Darwin. Scientifically Darwinism is a fraud but a well-funded, muscular, heavily invested and egotistically driven fraud. Its eventually demise is however, quite inevitable.